Features of human papillomavirus vaccination education strategies in low-and middle-income countries: A scoping review

We aimed to describe studies on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination education strategies from low- and middle-income countries in the published literature that could be applicable in Sub-Sahara Africa.

This scoping review was guided by Arksey and O’Malley’s methodological framework advanced by Levac et al.

We searched four electronic health sciences databases for relevant reports published between January 2006 and January 2021. Two reviewers screened for inclusion and extracted data for analysis and synthesis. Descriptive statistics and narrative descriptions were used to summarize the findings.

The database search retrieved 1757 reports, of which 48 were from low- and middle-income countries and met the inclusion criteria. Of these, there were 39 interventional studies (81.3%). Less than one-fifth of the studies (n = 9) reported a theoretical basis for their strategies. Most strategies sought to improve knowledge and awareness about HPV (75%, n = 36), whereas outcomes for the remaining studies were related to increasing HPV vaccine acceptability. HPV education strategies (1) primarily targeted females, (2) were mostly provided by health professionals, and (3) used various modalities of learning, including in-person sessions, text-based materials, media, theater, and online delivery.

HPV educational strategies are underresearched in most LMICs, suggesting the need for more primary observational, interventional, and experimental research, as well as program evaluations, focused on HPV educational strategies and theoretically informed. Once additional studies are added to the body of evidence, it will be valuable to review and synthesize diverse sources of evidence to determine what educational strategies are most useful and have the greatest impact on HPV vaccination in these settings, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa.

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