Immunocompromised children are at increased risk of severe illness from vaccine-preventable infections. However, inadequate vaccine coverage remains a concern. This scoping review sought to determine the current state of knowledge regarding vaccine coverage of immunocompromised children.
Bibliographic databases were searched for primary research from any year. Data were analyzed quantitatively and narratively. Ninety-seven studies met inclusion criteria. The most commonly studied vaccines were pneumococcal (n = 46), influenza (n = 44), diphtheria/tetanus/pertussis/poliomyelitis/Haemophilus influenzae type B/hepatitis B-containing (n = 36), and measles- and/or mumps- and/or rubella-containing (n = 29). Immunocompromising conditions studied included cancer/stem cell transplants (n = 24), solid organ transplants (n = 23), sickle cell disease (n = 21), immunosuppressive therapy (n = 14), human immunodeficiency virus (n = 12), splenectomy (n = 4), and primary immunodeficiency (n = 2).
As more children are treated with immunosuppressive therapies, it is critical to identify whether they are being appropriately vaccinated for age and condition. We identified gaps in the current state of knowledge for specific vaccine types in specific immunocompromised populations.